Abstract

The performance of weaner pigs (n=50; initial live weight 10kg) fed increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%) of cocoa bean shell meal replacing maize was investigated in a twelve week feeding trial.

Feed intake was not affected but live weight gain decreased when the cocoa shell meal exceeded 20% of the diet. Feed conversion was poorer when the cocoa shell meal exceeded 10% of the diet.

Introduction

One of the major challenges responsible for high cost of intensive pig production in Nigeria is the dependency on maize as the major energy source in the diet. Maize, the 3rd most produced food crop in Nigeria after cassava and yam in Nigeria still experience fluctuation in its production from 8,878,456 in 2011 to 8,422,620 in 2013, increasing to 10,790,600 in 2014 and decreasing to7,200,475 metric tonnes in 2016 (USDA 2016; World Data Atlas 2014). Pathetically, about 95% of maize produced in Nigeria is consumed with the remaining 5% for industrial purpose and as animal feed ingredient. Thus, about 3,000,000 metric tonnes of maize are imported annually (from 2014 to 2016) to the country. In spite of the importation, supply is still short of demand leaving the livestock sub sector at the receiving end. To sustain the livestock sub sector, the need to source for alternatives to maize as energy source in their diet becomes imperative. Studies had been conducted on the utilization of agro-based wastes such as cassava wastes (Akinfala and Tewe 2004; Adesehinwa et al 2008), brewer’s wastes (Aguilera-Soto et al 2008), sugar beet wastes (Martine et al 2015), food wastes (Saika and Bhar 2010), palm kernel meal (Fatufe et al 2007) among others in pigs diets. Of all these wastes, none has been universally accepted as alternative to maize as energy source in pig diet.

Another agro waste of importance is cocoa bean shell. Cocoa bean shell (CBS), a by-product of cocoa bean in chocolate, beverage and cocoa factories, is estimated at about 10,500 metric tonnes per annum and forms about 70% of the waste (FAO, 2002). This product is presently of no economic benefit and thus constitutes waste and environmental concern to the factory and host community. Thus, the present study assessed the feed intake and weight gain of weaner pigs on dietary inclusion of cocoa bean shell meal with the aim to mitigate the environmental concerns occasioned by the unwholesome dumping of these waste to the immediate environment.

Materials and methods

Experimental site

This research was carried out at the Pig Unit, Department of Agricultural Science, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo lies between latitude 070 051N and 04o551E in the forest zone of Nigeria with temperature ranged from 22-350C and annual rain fall 1800-3600 mm, spreading between March and October.

Collection and processing of cocoa bean shell

The cocoa bean shells (CBS) were collected from Stamack Cocoa Processing Industries, Ondo, Nigeria. They were bagged and stored in a cool dry place prior use.

Chemical composition determination

The dried and milled CBS were analyzed for dry matter (DM) by oven drying method, ash by muffle furnace, crude protein (CP) by kjedahl method, ether extract (EE) by soxhlet fat analysis, crude fibre (CF) by acid and alkaline hydrolysis as described by AOAC (2002). Theobromine determination was by the method of Gerritsma and Koers (1953). Gross energy (GE) was by the Gallenkamp Adiabatic Bomb Calorimeter (Model CBB-330-0104).

Feed preparation

The experimental diets (Table 1) were prepared in College Feed Mill. Five diets were formulated such that diet 1 which is the basal diet contained 0% CBS meal while diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained 10, 20, 30 and 40% dietary CBS meal, respectively.

  • Table 1. Gross composition of experimental diets
Ingredients, kg

Cocoa bean shell meal, % in the diet

0

10

20

30

40

Maize

56.2

50.6

45.0

39.3

33.7

Cocoa bean shell

5.6

11.2

16.9

22.5

Wheat offal

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

9.00

Soybean meal

14.00

14.00

14.00

14.00

14.00

Groundnut cake

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

Palm kernel cake

7.00

7.00

7.00

7.00

7.00

Fish meal

2.50

2.50

2.50

2.50

2.50

Bone meal

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.50

1.50

Oyster shell

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Premix

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Lysine

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

Methionine

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

0.15

Salt

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Total

100

100

100

100

100

Experimental design

The experimental design was the completely randomized CRD with five treatments replicated ten times with one weanling pig per treatment/replicate.

Management of the animals

Fifty weaner pigs of crossbreed and mixed sexes were used for the feeding trial. The pigs were given one week period of adaptation during which they were fed commercial grower diet and treated against parasitic infection by 0.5ml Ivermectin injected intramuscularly. After the adaptation period, they were randomly assigned to their respective diets. The animals were fed at 5% body weight with water served ad-libitum throughout the 84 days feeding trial.

Data collection and analysis

Data on feed intake, weight change and feed conversion were analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS 2006. Where significant differences existed, the means were separated using Duncan new Multiple Range Test (Duncan 1955).

Results and discussion

Chemical composition

Compared with maize, the cocoa bean shell has about 50% higher levels of crude protein and twice the level of ether extract, but twenty times the level of crude fiber (Table 2)

Table 2. Chemical composition of cocoa bean shell compared with maize (% in DM, unless indicated otherwise)

Cocoa bean shell

Maize grain #

Dry matter

93.5

Crude protein

15.4

9.4

Crude fiber

39.3

2.5

Ether extract

8.49

4.3

Ash

5.17

1.4

Theobromine (g/kg)

2.88

Performance indices

Feed intake was not affected by increasing levels of cocoa shell meal replacing maize indicating that the former was palatable, perhaps because of the chocolate odor and crispy texture (Odunsi and Longe 1995).

Final live weight and average weight gain decreased when the level of cocoa bean shell exceeded 20% of the diet, replacing maize (Table 3). Feed conversion was poorer on all diets with more than 10% cocoa shell meal. The presence of theobromine has been implicated as a factor limiting the feeding value of cocoa shell meal (Day and Dilworth 1984; Adamafio 2013), but it is more likely that the depression in growth rate and feed conversion was due to reduced digestibility as crude fiber in the cocoa shell meal replaced the starch in maize grain. This depression in growth rate could be connected with the dilution of the nutrients occasioned by successive inclusion of fibrous cocoa bean shell meal in place of maize (Ojewola et al 2006).

Table 3. Mean values for feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion for pigs fed increasing levels of cocoa bean shell meal replacing maize
Performance
characteristics

Cocoa bean shell meal, % in the diet

SEM

p

0

10

20

30

40

Live weight, kg
    Initial

9.98

9.97

10.10

9.93

9.93

0.17

0.52

    Final

44.8a

45.3a

43.6a

38.5b

39.5b

3.05

<0.003

    Daily gain

0.415a

0.421a

0.399a

0.340b

0.352b

0.04

<0.001

Feed intake, kg/d

1.10

1.14

1.14

1.09

1.07

0.03

0.19

Feed conversion

2.69a

2.71a

2.83b

3.22c

3.07d

0.32

<0.002

abcde Means without common superscripts along the same row differ at P< 0.05

Conclusions

  • Result shows that 20% was the optimal biological level of CBS meal as energy substitute for maize in pig diet.
  • Pig farmers in this part of the world where CBS abound are encouraged to utilize this waste in pig diet.
Agribusiness Information

219 COMMENTS

  1. You have made some really good points there. I checked on the net for more info about the issue and found most people will go along with your views on this website.

  2. After looking at a handful of the articles on your site, I seriously like your technique of writing a blog. I saved it to my bookmark site list and will be checking back soon. Please visit my web site too and let me know what you think.

  3. Having read this I thought it was extremely informative. I appreciate you taking the time and energy to put this short article together. I once again find myself personally spending a significant amount of time both reading and leaving comments. But so what, it was still worthwhile.

  4. I was pretty pleased to uncover this great site. I need to to thank you for your time for this particularly wonderful read!! I definitely loved every part of it and I have you book marked to check out new stuff on your website.

  5. Hi, I do believe this is an excellent web site. I stumbledupon it 😉 I will revisit once again since I bookmarked it. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide other people.

  6. Oh my goodness! Impressive article dude! Many thanks, However I am experiencing problems with your RSS. I don’t understand why I am unable to join it. Is there anybody having the same RSS issues? Anybody who knows the solution can you kindly respond? Thanx!!

  7. I was more than happy to discover this site. I want to to thank you for ones time for this wonderful read!! I definitely savored every part of it and i also have you saved as a favorite to look at new things on your blog.

  8. You’re so awesome! I do not suppose I have read through anything like this before. So nice to discover another person with a few unique thoughts on this issue. Seriously.. thank you for starting this up. This website is something that’s needed on the internet, someone with a little originality.

  9. I’d like to thank you for the efforts you have put in penning this blog. I am hoping to see the same high-grade content from you in the future as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my very own site now 😉

  10. After looking into a handful of the blog articles on your website, I really like your technique of writing a blog. I added it to my bookmark site list and will be checking back soon. Take a look at my web site too and let me know how you feel.

  11. Spot on with this write-up, I seriously believe this amazing site needs far more attention. I’ll probably be returning to read more, thanks for the info.

  12. You are so awesome! I do not believe I’ve truly read through something like that before. So nice to find someone with a few original thoughts on this issue. Really.. many thanks for starting this up. This site is something that is needed on the internet, someone with a bit of originality.

  13. Hi there! This blog post couldn’t be written much better! Looking at this post reminds me of my previous roommate! He constantly kept talking about this. I most certainly will forward this article to him. Fairly certain he’ll have a good read. Thanks for sharing!

  14. You made some really good points there. I looked on the internet to learn more about the issue and found most individuals will go along with your views on this web site.

  15. May I just say what a comfort to discover somebody that genuinely understands what they’re discussing on the net. You definitely understand how to bring a problem to light and make it important. A lot more people ought to read this and understand this side of the story. It’s surprising you are not more popular since you definitely possess the gift.

  16. Can I just say what a relief to find an individual who really knows what they’re discussing on the net. You certainly know how to bring a problem to light and make it important. More people really need to read this and understand this side of the story. I was surprised you’re not more popular because you definitely have the gift.

  17. I really love your website.. Very nice colors & theme. Did you build this web site yourself? Please reply back as I’m hoping to create my own website and would like to learn where you got this from or just what the theme is called. Thank you!

  18. I’d like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this blog. I’m hoping to view the same high-grade blog posts from you later on as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my own website now 😉

  19. You are so cool! I do not suppose I’ve read anything like this before. So wonderful to find another person with a few genuine thoughts on this subject. Seriously.. many thanks for starting this up. This web site is something that’s needed on the web, someone with some originality.

  20. Next time I read a blog, Hopefully it won’t fail me as much as this one. After all, I know it was my choice to read, but I really believed you would have something useful to talk about. All I hear is a bunch of whining about something you could possibly fix if you weren’t too busy seeking attention.

  21. You are so awesome! I don’t believe I’ve read through a single thing like that before. So great to find somebody with a few genuine thoughts on this issue. Really.. thank you for starting this up. This website is one thing that’s needed on the web, someone with a little originality.

  22. Spot on with this write-up, I truly think this website needs a great deal more attention. I’ll probably be returning to read through more, thanks for the information.

  23. I really love your site.. Very nice colors & theme. Did you make this website yourself? Please reply back as I’m attempting to create my very own site and would like to learn where you got this from or just what the theme is named. Cheers.

  24. The next time I read a blog, I hope that it won’t fail me as much as this particular one. I mean, I know it was my choice to read through, nonetheless I truly believed you would have something interesting to say. All I hear is a bunch of whining about something that you could possibly fix if you were not too busy seeking attention.

  25. Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon every day. It will always be exciting to read through content from other authors and use something from their sites.

  26. After I originally commented I appear to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on every time a comment is added I recieve 4 emails with the exact same comment. Is there a way you can remove me from that service? Thanks.

  27. After I initially left a comment I seem to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now every time a comment is added I recieve 4 emails with the exact same comment. There has to be a way you are able to remove me from that service? Thanks a lot.

  28. Oh my goodness! Incredible article dude! Thank you, However I am having troubles with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I can’t join it. Is there anybody getting similar RSS issues? Anyone that knows the solution will you kindly respond? Thanks.

  29. After I initially left a comment I appear to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on each time a comment is added I recieve 4 emails with the same comment. Perhaps there is a means you are able to remove me from that service? Appreciate it.

  30. Hi! I could have sworn I’ve been to this blog before but after looking at a few of the posts I realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely delighted I stumbled upon it and I’ll be book-marking it and checking back often.

  31. Spot on with this write-up, I actually believe that this site needs a lot more attention. I’ll probably be returning to read through more, thanks for the information.

  32. The next time I read a blog, Hopefully it doesn’t fail me just as much as this particular one. After all, Yes, it was my choice to read, nonetheless I really thought you’d have something helpful to talk about. All I hear is a bunch of complaining about something you can fix if you weren’t too busy looking for attention.

  33. Having read this I believed it was really informative. I appreciate you taking the time and energy to put this short article together. I once again find myself spending a lot of time both reading and posting comments. But so what, it was still worth it.

  34. I blog frequently and I really appreciate your information. The article has truly peaked my interest. I’m going to take a note of your site and keep checking for new information about once per week. I opted in for your Feed as well.

  35. Hi, I do think your web site could be having internet browser compatibility problems. Whenever I take a look at your web site in Safari, it looks fine however when opening in IE, it has some overlapping issues. I merely wanted to provide you with a quick heads up! Apart from that, great website.

  36. Your style is very unique in comparison to other folks I have read stuff from. Thank you for posting when you’ve got the opportunity, Guess I’ll just book mark this page.

  37. May I simply just say what a relief to uncover someone that really understands what they are talking about on the web. You actually know how to bring a problem to light and make it important. More and more people should check this out and understand this side of your story. I can’t believe you’re not more popular because you surely have the gift.

  38. Hello, There’s no doubt that your site might be having internet browser compatibility problems. Whenever I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine however, if opening in IE, it’s got some overlapping issues. I merely wanted to give you a quick heads up! Apart from that, fantastic website!

  39. Hi there! This blog post couldn’t be written any better! Looking through this article reminds me of my previous roommate! He always kept preaching about this. I most certainly will forward this information to him. Pretty sure he’s going to have a great read. Many thanks for sharing!

  40. Right here is the perfect website for anybody who would like to find out about this topic. You know so much its almost tough to argue with you (not that I really would want to…HaHa). You certainly put a brand new spin on a topic that’s been written about for decades. Excellent stuff, just excellent.

  41. Aw, this was an extremely good post. Spending some time and actual effort to make a really good article… but what can I say… I hesitate a whole lot and never seem to get anything done.

  42. Oh my goodness! Incredible article dude! Thanks, However I am encountering difficulties with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I am unable to join it. Is there anyone else getting the same RSS problems? Anyone who knows the answer can you kindly respond? Thanks.

  43. When I initially left a comment I appear to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on every time a comment is added I recieve four emails with the same comment. Perhaps there is a way you are able to remove me from that service? Thanks a lot.

  44. An impressive share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a co-worker who has been conducting a little homework on this. And he in fact bought me lunch because I discovered it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanx for spending some time to discuss this matter here on your website.

  45. A fascinating discussion is worth comment. I believe that you ought to write more on this issue, it may not be a taboo matter but usually folks don’t speak about such subjects. To the next! All the best.

  46. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog that’s both equally educative and interesting, and let me tell you, you’ve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which not enough men and women are speaking intelligently about. Now i’m very happy I came across this in my search for something relating to this.

  47. Howdy! This post couldn’t be written much better! Reading through this article reminds me of my previous roommate! He always kept preaching about this. I most certainly will forward this information to him. Fairly certain he’ll have a good read. I appreciate you for sharing!

  48. That is a very good tip especially to those fresh to the blogosphere. Short but very precise information… Many thanks for sharing this one. A must read article.

  49. Hi there, I do think your blog may be having browser compatibility problems. When I look at your website in Safari, it looks fine however, if opening in I.E., it’s got some overlapping issues. I just wanted to provide you with a quick heads up! Apart from that, great site!

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here