[ad_1]

A plant has one genome, a specific sequence of millions of basepairs of nucleotides. Yet how this genome is expressed can vary from cell to cell, and it can change as a plant goes through various life stages, from germination to vegetative growth to flowering to dormancy. Some genes must be turned on and others shut off to ensure each plant cell is doing what it needs to do when it needs to do it.

New research led by University of Pennsylvania biologists and published this week in the journal Nature Genetics has identified small sequences in plant DNA that act as signposts for shutting off gene activity, directing the placement of proteins that silence gene expression. Manipulating these short DNA fragments offers the potential to grow plants with enhanced activation of certain traits, such as fruiting or seed production. The finding may also have implications for understanding gene regulation in both plants and animals.

“Part of identity is what you aren’t,” said Doris Wagner, senior author on the study and a professor in Penn’s Department of Biology in the School of Arts & Sciences. “Especially for plants because they are so changeable and susceptible to environmental conditions, the part of the genome that is not needed, or that might be providing exactly the wrong information, needs to be shut off reliably in each condition. This information is then passed on to daughter cells.

“With these short sequences,” Wagner said, “we could try to manipulate them using gene-editing techniques to alter gene expression without adding any foreign genetic material to the plant and epigenetically alter expression of traits.”

The study focused on the form of gene regulation known as Polycomb repression. Polycomb protein complexes were first discovered in fruit flies, shown to tightly compact DNA and represent an epigenetic modification leading to gene silencing. Polycomb complexes were later discovered in plants and mammals. In all species, they play important roles in determining cell identity, helping plant cells remember, for example, that they are leaf cells or flower cells.

Despite some studies implicating short segments of DNA called Polycomb response elements, or PREs, in the Polycomb targeting process in flies, questions remained about whether such PREs played a broad role in gene silencing in mammals or plants.

Wagner’s team examined the Polycomb complex called PRC2. Using large-scale datasets collected by her lab and others, the researchers identified 170 segments of DNA in the plant species Arabidopsis thaliana that were likely to be PREs. Testing five of these candidate PREs, they confirmed that they acted just as PREs did in fruit flies, recruiting the Polycomb complex to specific parts of the plant genome.

The researchers then identified 55 transcription factors, proteins that bind specific DNA sequences and help regulate how DNA is turned into RNA, that strongly bound to the PREs, and they verified that 30 of them physically interacted with PRC2.

“This is just what a recruiter should do,” Wagner said, “find the appropriate region in the genome and bring in Polycomb.”

Wanting to know more about what elements in the DNA sequence itself marked it for targeting by Polycomb complexes, the researchers went back to the 170 PRE candidates, computationally identifying short DNA sequences called cis motifs, which are what transcription factors recognize when they scan the genome for their target genes.

With additional analysis, Wagner and colleagues found two of the cis motifs matched up with two of the previously identified transcription factors. Putting these cis motifs in to a plant cell genome revealed they were sufficient for recruiting Polycomb, making them essentially a synthetic PRE.

“We brought together the cis (within DNA sequence) and trans (acting on a DNA sequence) factors to show how Polycomb targets specific PREs and broadly regulates plant gene expression,” Wagner said. “This is the first demonstration that this mechanism — recruitment of Polycomb by these signposts in the DNA — acts in species outside of fruit flies. In the future I could use these motifs to epigenetically enhance desireable traits such as yield or drought tolerance without significantly changing the coding sequence.”

In follow-up work, Wagner wants to explore PREs and these motifs and transcription factors in plant species besides Arabidopsis. She’d also like to investigate how rapidly the system can change if, for example, a plant is exposed to water or salt stress.

The findings may also guide the work of researchers outside of the plant field, noted Kenneth Zaret, director of Penn’s Institute of Regenerative Medicine, who did not participate in the current study but who studies gene regulation in animals.

“Finding specific DNA sequences that mediate the action of the Polycomb repressive system has been the Holy Grail for mammalian cell biologists,” Zaret said. “The rigorous approach of the Wagner study beautifully revealed a mechanism of repression of gene activity that will no doubt have implications beyond the plant world.”

[ad_2]

Source link

Agribusiness Information

162 COMMENTS

  1. Hi, I do think this is an excellent website. I stumbledupon it 😉 I may revisit once again since I book marked it.

    Money and freedom is the best way to change,
    may you be rich and continue to help others.

  2. Magnificent beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your
    web site, how could i subscribe for a blog site? The account aided me a acceptable deal.

    I had been a little bit acquainted of this your
    broadcast provided bright clear concept

  3. Hello there! This is my first visit to your blog!
    We are a group of volunteers and starting a
    new project in a community in the same niche.

    Your blog provided us useful information to work on. You have done a extraordinary job!

  4. You can definitely see your expertise in the article you write.
    The sector hopes for more passionate writers like you who
    aren’t afraid to say how they believe. All the time follow your heart.

  5. Awesome blog! Is your theme custom made or did you
    download it from somewhere? A theme like yours with a few simple adjustements would really
    make my blog shine. Please let me know where you got your theme.
    Bless you

  6. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Rarely do I come across a blog that’s equally
    educative and interesting, and let me tell you, you’ve hit
    the nail on the head. The problem is something that not enough men and women are speaking intelligently about.
    Now i’m very happy I came across this during my
    hunt for something relating to this.

  7. I’ve been exploring for a little bit for any high quality articles or
    blog posts on this kind of space . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this website.
    Reading this information So i’m happy to convey that I’ve a very excellent uncanny feeling I discovered exactly what I needed.
    I so much no doubt will make sure to do not fail to remember this website and give it a glance on a relentless basis.

  8. Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your website and in accession capital to assert that I get actually enjoyed account your blog posts.

    Any way I will be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement
    you access consistently rapidly.

  9. I was curious if you ever thought of changing the layout of
    your site? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.
    But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better.
    Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or 2 pictures.
    Maybe you could space it out better?

  10. I just like the valuable information you supply to your articles.
    I will bookmark your blog and take a look at once
    more right here regularly. I’m fairly certain I will
    learn many new stuff right right here! Best of luck for the
    following!

  11. Normally I don’t read article on blogs, but I would like to say that this write-up very pressured me to check out and do
    it! Your writing style has been surprised me.

    Thanks, quite great post.

  12. I really like your blog.. very nice colors &
    theme. Did you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?
    Plz respond as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to find out where u got this from.
    appreciate it

  13. When someone writes an paragraph he/she keeps the thought of a user in his/her brain that how a user can be aware of it.
    So that’s why this post is amazing. Thanks!

  14. I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here.
    The sketch is tasteful, your authored subject matter stylish.
    nonetheless, you command get got an edginess over that you wish be
    delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come further formerly again as
    exactly the same nearly very often inside case
    you shield this hike.

  15. Oh my goodness! Awesome article dude! Many thanks, However
    I am going through difficulties with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I can’t join it.
    Is there anybody else getting the same RSS issues?
    Anyone who knows the solution will you kindly respond?
    Thanx!!

  16. Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on websites I stumbleupon on a daily basis.
    It will always be helpful to read content from other writers and practice something from other sites.

  17. It’s really a nice and helpful piece of info.

    I am happy that you just shared this helpful information with us.
    Please stay us informed like this. Thank you for sharing.

  18. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your site and in accession capital to assert that
    I get actually enjoyed account your blog posts.
    Anyway I will be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you access consistently quickly.

  19. Excellent article. Keep posting such kind of info on your page.
    Im really impressed by your blog.
    Hey there, You have performed an incredible job.
    I will certainly digg it and for my part suggest to my
    friends. I am sure they will be benefited from this site.

  20. Hi, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility issues.
    When I look at your blog in Safari, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer,
    it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!
    Other then that, superb blog!

  21. Howdy! This post couldn’t be written any better!
    Reading this post reminds me of my old room mate!
    He always kept talking about this. I will forward this article to
    him. Fairly certain he will have a good read. Thank you for sharing!

  22. Do you have a spam issue on this site; I also am a blogger, and I was curious about your situation; we have developed
    some nice practices and we are looking to exchange methods with
    other folks, why not shoot me an email if interested.

  23. You made some really good points there. I looked on the web to find out more
    about the issue and found most individuals will go along with
    your views on this web site.

  24. I’m impressed, I have to admit. Rarely do I come across a
    blog that’s equally educative and interesting, and let me tell you,
    you have hit the nail on the head. The issue is something that
    not enough folks are speaking intelligently about. I am very happy
    I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  25. Can I simply just say what a relief to find someone who genuinely knows
    what they’re talking about on the web. You certainly realize how to bring an issue to
    light and make it important. A lot more people have to
    check this out and understand this side of your story.

    It’s surprising you’re not more popular because you surely possess the gift.

  26. Thank you for the auspicious writeup. It in fact was a amusement
    account it. Look advanced to far added agreeable from you!

    However, how could we communicate?

  27. An outstanding share! I have just forwarded this onto a coworker who has
    been doing a little homework on this. And he in fact
    ordered me lunch due to the fact that I stumbled upon it for him…
    lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thanks for the meal!!
    But yeah, thanx for spending some time to discuss this subject here on your internet site.

  28. I’m gone to tell my little brother, that he should
    also pay a quick visit this webpage on regular basis
    to get updated from latest information.

  29. I’m amazed, I have to admit. Rarely do I encounter a
    blog that’s both equally educative and engaging, and without a doubt, you
    have hit the nail on the head. The issue is an issue that not enough folks are speaking intelligently about.
    I am very happy I came across this during my hunt for something
    relating to this.

  30. Hi! This is my first comment here so I just
    wanted to give a quick shout out and tell you I truly enjoy reading your posts.

    Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that deal with the same subjects?

    Thank you!

  31. Hey there! I simply would like to offer you a huge thumbs up for your excellent info you have
    right here on this post. I’ll be returning to your web site for more soon.

  32. It’s appropriate time to make a few plans for the future and it’s time to be happy.
    I have learn this post and if I may I want to recommend you few interesting issues or advice.
    Maybe you could write next articles relating to this article.
    I want to learn even more issues approximately it!

  33. Please let me know if you’re looking for a article author for your site.
    You have some really great posts and I feel I would
    be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of
    the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some content for
    your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please
    shoot me an email if interested. Cheers!

  34. Hello, I think your blog could be having web
    browser compatibility issues. Whenever I take a look at your blog in Safari,
    it looks fine however, when opening in IE, it’s
    got some overlapping issues. I just wanted to provide you with a quick heads up!
    Apart from that, wonderful website!

  35. Hi! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before but after checking
    through some of the post I realized it’s new
    to me. Anyways, I’m definitely happy I found it and I’ll
    be book-marking and checking back often!

  36. A motivating discussion is definitely worth comment.

    I think that you ought to publish more on this subject matter, it may not be a taboo subject but
    typically people do not discuss such subjects. To the next!
    All the best!!

  37. Good day! This is kind of off topic but I need
    some help from an established blog. Is it tough to set
    up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty fast.

    I’m thinking about making my own but I’m not sure where to
    begin. Do you have any tips or suggestions? With thanks

  38. I am extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your blog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you customize it
    yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice
    blog like this one these days.

  39. Hey there are using WordPress for your blog platform? I’m new to
    the blog world but I’m trying to get started and create my own. Do you require any html coding expertise to make your own blog?
    Any help would be really appreciated!

  40. I have been browsing online more than 4 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours.
    It’s pretty worth enough for me. In my view, if
    all webmasters and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be much more useful than ever before.

  41. of course like your web site however you need to take a
    look at the spelling on quite a few of your posts.
    Several of them are rife with spelling issues and I in finding it very
    troublesome to tell the reality then again I’ll surely come back
    again.

  42. hello there and thank you for your info – I’ve definitely
    picked up something new from right here. I did
    however expertise some technical points using this web site, since I experienced to reload the website lots of times previous to I could get it to
    load correctly. I had been wondering if your web host is OK?
    Not that I’m complaining, but sluggish loading
    instances times will often affect your placement in google and can damage your quality score if advertising
    and marketing with Adwords. Well I’m adding this RSS to my email and can look out for a lot more of your
    respective fascinating content. Make sure you update this again soon.

  43. Hey! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues
    with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing several weeks
    of hard work due to no back up. Do you have any methods to stop hackers?

  44. What’s Going down i’m new to this, I stumbled upon this I have found It
    positively helpful and it has helped me out loads.
    I’m hoping to give a contribution & assist different customers like its helped me.
    Great job.

  45. Hey there would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re working with?
    I’m going to start my own blog in the near future but I’m having
    a difficult time selecting between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal.

    The reason I ask is because your layout seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something unique.

    P.S Apologies for being off-topic but I had to ask!

  46. A person essentially lend a hand to make significantly
    articles I’d state. That is the first time I frequented your web page and up to now?
    I surprised with the analysis you made to make this actual put up extraordinary.
    Great job!

  47. Hi! I realize this is somewhat off-topic but
    I had to ask. Does building a well-established website such as yours require a massive amount work?
    I am completely new to writing a blog but I do write in my diary on a daily basis.
    I’d like to start a blog so I can easily share my own experience
    and views online. Please let me know if you have any kind of recommendations or tips for
    new aspiring blog owners. Thankyou!

  48. Hello are using WordPress for your blog platform? I’m new to the blog
    world but I’m trying to get started and create my own. Do you require any html coding expertise to make your
    own blog? Any help would be greatly appreciated!

  49. Hello, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar
    one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam
    responses? If so how do you prevent it, any plugin or anything you
    can recommend? I get so much lately it’s driving me insane so any assistance is very much appreciated.

  50. I was wondering if you ever considered changing the layout of your site?
    Its very well written; I love what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little
    more in the way of content so people could
    connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or two images.
    Maybe you could space it out better?

  51. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before but after reading through some of the post I realized
    it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely delighted I found it and I’ll be bookmarking and checking
    back often!

  52. I know this if off topic but I’m looking into starting my own blog and was
    wondering what all is required to get set up? I’m assuming having a blog
    like yours would cost a pretty penny? I’m not very web smart so I’m not
    100% certain. Any suggestions or advice would be
    greatly appreciated. Cheers

  53. Its such as you learn my mind! You appear to grasp so much
    about this, like you wrote the e book in it or something.

    I think that you simply could do with some % to force the message home
    a bit, but instead of that, this is excellent blog. An excellent read.
    I will certainly be back.

  54. Superb blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers?
    I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little
    lost on everything. Would you propose starting with a
    free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many choices out
    there that I’m totally overwhelmed .. Any tips? Thank you!

  55. My coder is trying to persuade me to move to .net
    from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses.
    But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on several websites for about a year and
    am concerned about switching to another platform.
    I have heard great things about blogengine.net. Is there a way
    I can transfer all my wordpress posts into it? Any help
    would be really appreciated!

  56. you’re in reality a good webmaster. The site loading velocity
    is amazing. It sort of feels that you’re doing any distinctive trick.
    Also, The contents are masterpiece. you have done a great activity
    on this subject!

  57. Hey! Do you know if they make any plugins to safeguard against hackers?
    I’m kinda paranoid about losing everything I’ve worked hard on. Any tips?

  58. I loved as much as you’ll receive carried out right here.
    The sketch is attractive, your authored subject matter
    stylish. nonetheless, you command get got an impatience over that you
    wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come more formerly
    again as exactly the same nearly a lot often inside case you shield this increase.

  59. Do you mind if I quote a couple of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back to your site?
    My blog is in the exact same area of interest as yours
    and my visitors would really benefit from some of the information you provide here.
    Please let me know if this alright with you. Thanks a lot!

  60. Have you ever thought about writing an e-book or guest authoring on other websites?

    I have a blog based upon on the same subjects you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information.
    I know my readers would appreciate your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send me an e-mail.

  61. Greetings! I know this is kinda off topic however , I’d figured I’d
    ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest writing
    a blog article or vice-versa? My website addresses a lot of the same subjects as yours
    and I feel we could greatly benefit from each other. If you’re interested feel free to send me an e-mail.
    I look forward to hearing from you! Superb blog by the way!

  62. My partner and I stumbled over here from a different web
    address and thought I might as well check things
    out. I like what I see so now i’m following you.
    Look forward to checking out your web page for a second
    time.

  63. Hi, I do think this is a great website. I stumbledupon it 😉 I
    am going to return yet again since I saved as a favorite it.
    Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and continue to help others.

  64. We are a gaggle of volunteers and starting a brand new
    scheme in our community. Your web site provided us with useful info
    to work on. You have performed a formidable process and
    our whole group can be grateful to you.

  65. Hello! I could have sworn I’ve visited your blog before but after browsing through
    a few of the articles I realized it’s new to me.
    Anyhow, I’m certainly happy I found it and I’ll be bookmarking it and checking back frequently!

  66. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
    Did you make this website yourself or did you hire someone
    to do it for you? Plz respond as I’m looking to construct my own blog and would
    like to know where u got this from. kudos

  67. What i don’t understood is if truth be told how you are now not actually a lot more neatly-appreciated than you may
    be now. You are very intelligent. You know therefore considerably on the subject of this matter, made
    me in my opinion consider it from numerous various angles. Its like men and women aren’t interested until it is something to do with Lady gaga!
    Your individual stuffs great. Always take care of it up!

  68. Good day! I could have sworn I’ve been to this site before but after checking through some of the post I
    realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely happy I found it and
    I’ll be book-marking and checking back often!

  69. Hi there! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with hackers?

    My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing several weeks of hard work due to no
    data backup. Do you have any solutions to prevent hackers?

  70. I am really loving the theme/design of your website.
    Do you ever run into any browser compatibility problems?
    A small number of my blog audience have complained about
    my blog not working correctly in Explorer but looks great in Chrome.
    Do you have any ideas to help fix this issue?

  71. Thanks on your marvelous posting! I truly enjoyed reading it, you can be
    a great author.I will always bookmark your blog
    and will come back in the foreseeable future. I want to
    encourage yourself to continue your great posts, have a nice weekend!

  72. I blog quite often and I seriously thank you for your information. The article
    has really peaked my interest. I will take a note of your blog and keep checking for new details about once a
    week. I subscribed to your Feed as well.

  73. Remarkable things here. I’m very glad to see your post. Thank you a lot and I’m taking a look forward
    to contact you. Will you please drop me a mail?

  74. I blog quite often and I genuinely thank you for your information. This great article has truly peaked my interest.
    I am going to book mark your site and keep checking
    for new information about once a week. I opted in for your RSS feed too.

  75. Hi! I realize this is sort of off-topic but I had to ask.
    Does managing a well-established website like yours take a large amount of work?
    I am completely new to operating a blog but I do write in my diary
    everyday. I’d like to start a blog so I can share my personal experience and feelings online.
    Please let me know if you have any recommendations or tips for brand new aspiring blog owners.
    Appreciate it!

  76. I’m really impressed with your writing skills and also withh the layout on your blog.
    Is thius a paid theme or did you modkfy it yourself?

    Anyyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it is rare to
    see a nice bog like this one nowadays.

    Feell free to visit my wweb sire inf-energy.com

  77. Hi there! This blog post could not be written mich better!
    Reading through this article reminds me of my previous roommate!
    He continually kept talking about sex cams this.
    I most certainly will forward this article to him. Pretty sure he will have a great read.
    Many thanks for sharing!

  78. Hi, I do believe this is a great website. I stumbledupon it 😉 I may return once again since i have saved
    aas a avorite it. Money and freedom is the greatest way
    too change, mayy you be rich and continuee too help other people.

    Feel free to surf to my web-site – Isobel

  79. Heey there would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re using?
    I’m looking to start my own blog in the near future but I’m having a touhgh time making a decision between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and
    Drupal. The reason I ask is because your design and syle seems different then most blog
    and I’m looking ffor something unique. P.S Apologies for being off-topic but I haad tto ask!

    Also visit myy webpage: Chaturbate

  80. I am extremely impressed with your writing skills as well as with the layout on your weblog.
    Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself?
    Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice
    blog like this one these days.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here